White Papers


Solar Simulators

Model 601 Multiport® 6-Output Solar Simulator

Accumulated P53 Protein and UVA Protection Level of Sunscreens. S.Seite, D. Moyal, M.P. Verdier, C. Hourseau, A. Fourtanier. 2000.

Biodegradable Bioadhesive Nanoparticle Incorporation of Broad‐Spectrum Organic Sunscreen Agents. Published in Bioengineering & Translational Medicine. Hee‐Won Suh,  Julia Lewis,  Linda Fong,  Julie Ying Ramseier,  Kacie Carlson,  Zheng‐Hong Peng, Emily Sara Yin,  W. Mark Saltzman, and Michael Girardi. 2019.

Consequences for Sun Protection Factors when Solar Simulator Spectra Deviate from the Spectrum of the Sun. B. Uhlmann, T.Mann, H. Gers-Barlag, D. Alert, G. Sauermann. 1996.

In Vivo Evaluation of the Protective Capacity of Sunscreen by Monitoring Urocanic Acid Isomer in the Stratum Corneum using Raman Spectroscopy. Mariko Egawa, Haruhi Iwaki.2008.

Minimal Erythema Dose (MED) Testing. Published in Journal of Visualized Experiments. Carolyn J. Heckman, Rachel Chandler,  Jacqueline D. Kloss, Amy Benson,  Deborah Rooney,  Teja Munshi, Susan D. Darlow, Clifford Perlis, Sharon L. Manne, and David W. Oslin. 2013.

Skin Penetration and Sun Protection Factor of Ultra-Violet Filters from Two Vehicles. Treffel, P. & Gabard, B. Pharm Res.1996.

Sun Protection Effect of Dihydroxyacetone. Annesofie Faurschou; Nadeem Rezaq Janjua, MD; Hans Christian Wulf, MD. 2004. 

Threshold Level for Measurement of UV Sensitivity: Reproducibility of Phototest. J.Lock-Andersen. H.C.Wulf. 1996.

16S-Series and LS-1000 Series Solar Simulators

A conversation with Dr. Olga Dueva-Koganov, Research Director BioMaterials, Ashland Inc. on Emerging Category of Sun Protection Fabrics. Published in Household and Personal Care Today. Olga V. Dueva-Koganov. 2016.

Aggregation of ZnO Nanocrystallites for High Conversion Efficiency in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Qifeng Zhang Dr., Tammy P. Chou Dr., Bryan Russo, Samson A. Jenekhe Prof., Guozhong Cao Prof. 2008.

Are SPF and Critical Wavelength Sufficient to Measure Efficiency of Sunscreen Products Against Sun Induced Skin Damage? Published in Household and Personal Care Today. Artyom Duev, Olga V. Dueva-Koganov, Gary Kelm, R. Randall Wickett. 2013.

Determination of Minimal Erythema Dose and Anomalous Reactions to UVA Radiation by Skin Phototype. Published in Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition). 2014.

Effect of Intense Pulsed-Light Exposure on Lipid Peroxides and Thymine Dimers in Human Skin In Vivo. Olivier Sorg, PhD; Victor Janer, MD; Christophe Antille, MD. March 2007.

Hierarchically Structured ZnO Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Enhanced Energy Conversion Efficiency. T.P. Chou, Q. Zhang, G.E. Fryxell, G.Z. Cao. 2007.

Inhibition of Histidine Ammonia Lyase by 8-Methoxypsoralen and Psoralen-Oxidized Photoproducts. JT Reilly, KA Troester, TT Tyner,  DA Vitale, TR Risher. 2010.

In Vitro Evaluation of Potential Protection Provided by Topical Products against Full Solar and Visible plus Infrared Radiation. Published in Household and Personal Care Today. Olga V. Dueva-Koganov, Artyom Duev, Robert Turner, Steven Micceri. March/April 2014.

Protection of Skin Against Full Solar, Visible and Infrared Radiation by Fabrics: New Testing Methodology and Perspective. Published in Household and Personal Care Today. Olga V. Dueva-Koganov, Artyom Duev, Paul Recht. 2014.

Protective Effects of a Topical Antioxidant Mixture Containing Vitamin C, Ferulic Acid, and Phloretin Against Ultraviolet-Induced Photodamage in Human Skin. Christian Oresajo, PhD. 2008.

Solar UV Simulator Skin Testing. Cosmetics and Toiletries Manufacture Worldwide. 238-241. Daniel Berger.

Sunscreen Enhancement of UV-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species in the Skin. Kerry M.Hanson,  EnricoGratton, Christopher J.Bardeen. 2006. 

Sunscreen Standards Tested with Differently Filtered Solar Simulators. Robert M. Sayre, Joseph Stanfield, Andrew J. Bush, Dennis L. Lott.

Uniformity of Sunscreen Product Application: a Problem in Testing, a Problem for Consumers. Dennis L. Lott, Joseph Stanfield, Robert M. Sayre, John C. Dowdy. 2003.


Atmospheric Instrumentation

Model 540 Microtops® Sunphotometer

Aeronet – Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN). David M. Giles, Brent N. Holben. NASA. 2017.

Columnar-Integrated Aerosol Optical Properties and Classification of Different Aerosol Types Over the Semi-Arid Region. Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh. 2015.

Design, Calibration, and Performance of MICROTOPS II Handheld Ozone Monitor and Sunphotometer. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 106, NO D13, 14,573-14,582. Marian Morys, Forrest M. Mims III, Scott Hagerup, Stanley E. Anderson, Aaron Baker, Jesse Kia, Travis Walkup. July 2001. 

Ship-Based Sunphotometer Measurements Using Microtops II. Porter Et Al, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanographic Technology, Vol. 18, 765-774, 2001.

Temporal Variation of Aerosol Optical Depth and Associated Shortwave Radiative Forcing Over a Coastal Site Along the West Coast of India. HB. Menon, S. Shirodkar, S. Kedia, SR, S. Babu,  KK. Moorthy. 2013.

Model 521 Microtops® Ozonometer

A Comparison of MICROTOPS II and OMI Satellite Ozone Measurements in Novi Sad from 2007 to 2015. Z. Podrascanin, I. Balog, A. Jankovic, Z. Mijatovic, Z. Nadj. 2017. 

A Comparison of the New Filter Ozonometer MICROTOPS II with Dobson and Brewer Spectrometers at Hohenpeissenberg U. Kohler – Reprint from Geophysical Research Letters

Absolute Measurement and Modelization of 305.5 nm Direct Spectral Solar Radiation in Rosario, Argentina. Work published in Spanish in “Avances en Energias Renovables y Medio Ambiente”, Vol. 2, 11.53-11.56 (1998).

Design, Calibration and Performance of Microtops II Hand-Held Ozonometer. Marian Morys, Forrest M. Mims III, Stanley E. Anderson

Ultraviolet Radiation Properties as Applied to Photoclimatherapy at the Dead Sea. A.I. Kudish, PHD, D. Abels, MD, and M. Harari MD – International Journal of Dermatology 2003, 42, 359-365.

Model 501 UV Biometer-Radiometer

A Variable Sky-View Platform for the Measurement of Ultraviolet Radiation. Christopher Kuchinke and Manuel Nunez. February 2003. 

Calibration of The Broad Band Radiometer. (describes 501 Radiometer calibration ) Daniel Berger, Marian Morys

Inter-Comparison of the Solar UVB, UVA and Global Radiation Clearness and UV Indices for Beer Sheva and Neve Zohar (Dead Sea), Israel. Avraham I. Kudish, Marco Harari and Efim G. Evseev – Photochemistry and Photobiology, 2011, 87: 215–222.

Objective Determination of Fitzpatrick Skin Type. Mette Henriksen Ravnbak, MD. 2008.

Statistical Analysis and Inter-Comparison of the Solar UVB, UVA and Global radiation for Beer Sheva and Neve Zohar (Dead Sea), Israel. A. I. Kudish, V. Lyubansky, E. G. Evseev, and A. Ianetz. November 2004.

Statistical Relationships Between Solar UVB and UVA Radiation and Global Radiation Measurements at Two Sites in Israel. A.I Kudish, V. Lyubansky, E.G. Evseev, A. Ianetz – Theor. Appl. Climatol. 80, 1-15 (2005)

The Accurate Measurement of Biological Effective Ultraviolet Radiation. Paper was presented at the International Symposium on High Latitude Optics, Tromso, Norway, July 1993 Marian Morys, Daniel Berger

The Analysis of Ultraviolet Radiation in the Dead Sear Basin, Israel. A.I. Kudish, E. Evseev – International Journal of Climatology, Int. J. Climatol. 20: 759-770 (2000).

The Measurement and Analysis of Normal Incidence Solar UVB Radiation and Its Application to the Photoclimatherapy Protocol for Psoriasis at the Dead Sea, Israel. Avraham I. Kudish, Marco Harari and Efim G. Evseev. International Journal of Climatology, Vol.17 1697-1704 (1997).

UV-Biometer – A Broad Band Instrument Complementing Ozone Measurement With Ground Based UV Exposure. Presented at Quadrennial Ozone Symposium Charlottesville, Virginia, USA June 4-13 1992 Daniel Berger, Marian Morys

Ultraviolet Radiation Properties as Applied to Photoclimatherapy at the Dead Sea. A.I. Kudish, PHD, D. Abels, MD, and M. Harari MD – International Journal of Dermatology 2003, 42, 359-365.

WMO/UNEP Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project No.3. Report of WMO’s first UV meeting Geneva May 1977


Specialty Meters

Model SL-3101 SP-Meter™

Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting. Prepared by Pacific Gas and Electric Company. January 2008.

Energy Conservation Using Scotopically Enhanced Fluorescent Lighting In An Office Environment. Prepared for Building Technologies Program Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy. March 2004

Spectrally Enhanced Lighting Program Implementation for Energy Savings: Field Evaluation. KL Gordon, GP Sullivan, PR Armstrong, EE Richman, BD Matzke. August 2006.


Model 5.7 Total UV (A+B) Meter: Raphi Strauss, Israel’s First Case of Xeroderma Pigmentosum

Model 5.7 Total UV (A+B) Meter: Photochemistry & Photobiology – Analysis of Compact Flourescent Lights for Use by Patients with Photosensitive Conditions

Model 6.2 UVB Meter: Using the Solarmeter 6.2 UVB and 6.5 UVI Meters by Frances M. Baines

Model 6.2 UVB Meter: Zoo Biology – Voluntary Exposure of Some Western-Hemisphere Snake and Lizard Species to UVB Radiation in the Field

Model 6.4 Vitamin D Meter: Chicago Herpatological Society – Measuring Effective Vitamin D3-Producing UVB Radiation Using Solarmeter 6.4 Handheld UVB Radiometer

Model 6.4 Vitamin D Meter: A First Approach In Measuring, Modeling, and Forecasting the Vitamin-D Effective UV Radiation

Model 6.4 Vitamin D Meter: Photochemistry & Photobiology – Action Spectrum Conversion Factors that Change Erythemally Weighted to Previtamin D3-Weighted UV Doses

Model 6.5 UV Index Meter: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences – Comparison between UV Index Measurements Performed By Research-Grade and Consumer-Products Instruments

Model 6.5 UV Index Meter: Reptile Lighting Information by Frances M. Baines – Reptiles Magazine 2009

Model 6.5 UV Index Meter: An In-Depth Look At UV Light And Its Proper Use With Reptiles by Frances M. Baines – Reptiles Magazine January / February 2017

Model 6.5 UV Index Meter: How Much UVB Does My Reptile Need? The UV-Tool, A Guide To The Selection of UV Lighting For Reptiles and Amphibians In Captivity – Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research January 2016

Model 6.5/6.5R UV Index Meter: Spannende Reptilien Und Moderne Technik In Neuen Schweizer Zoolangen by Dr. Oliver Fischer – Reptilia August / September 2018

Rolfe, Gary. “Which Ferguson Zone Is My Reptile In?” Northampton Reptile Centre, 10 Sept. 2020, https://www.reptilecentre.com/blog/2020/09/which-ferguson-zone-is-my-reptile-in/?mc_cid=0b9aa7c356&mc_eid=b0cae945e1. Accessed 1 Aug. 2022.

Spectrometers & Radiometers

A Comparison of Spectroradiometers to Radiometers for UV Radiation Measurements. Daniel Berger

A Fluence-Based Method for the Direct Comparison of Photolysis Kinetics under Variable Light Regimes.  Environmental Science & Technology Letters. Maya L. Wei-Haas and Yu-Ping Chin. June 2015.


A Climatology Of Sunburning Ultraviolet Radiation. The Center for Photobiology, Skin and Cancer Hospital. Temple University School of Medicine. Daniel S. Berger and Frederick Urbach. 187-192. September 1981. 

 Biologically Effective Ultraviolet Radiation: Surface Measurements In The United States, 1974 to 1985. Science, Vol. 239, 762-763. Joseph Scorro, Gerald Corron, Frederick Urbach, Daniel Berger, Thomas Fears. February 1988.

FDA Sunscreen Drug Products for Over the Counter Human Drugs. Federal Register Friday August 25 1978 Part II First Federal Sunscreen Testing Protocol.

Guidance for Industry Labeling and Effectiveness Testing: Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-The-Counter Human Use — Small Entity Compliance Guide. Prepared byU.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). December 2012.

The Effect of UVB In The Marine Environment. Presented at Quadrennial Ozone Symposium Charlottesville, Virginia, USA June 4-13 1992 Daniel Berger, Marian Morys

Poster: Before UV Gets To The Earth’s Surface. Presented at Quadrennial Ozone Symposium Charlottesville, Virginia, USA June 4-13 1992 Daniel Berger, Marian Morys

UV Radiation: Balancing Risks and Benefits. Richard L. McKenzie, J. Ben Liley and Lars Olof Bjo ̈rn. December 2007.